Welcome to the WB8YLO web site. This web site is intended to present information of interest
to amateur radio operators at all levels. Anyone with an interest in amateur radio, whether unlicensed,
newly licensed, or an experienced old-timer should find something of interest here.
Poke around the site and see what is here. If you don't see something you think should be here, or,
if you have any comments or questions, feel free to contact me via the contacts page and
let me know how the site could be more useful and/or interesting for you.
Again, welcome to the web site and please check back often.
Steve Judd, WB8YLO
SI Unit Prefixes Chart Updated In The 'Reference' Section
The "SI Unit Prefixes" chart, found in the Reference section, has been updated. The International
Bureau of Weights and Measures added four new prefixes to the chart in 2022. The new prefixes were
added in anticipation of the need to represent both larger and smaller numbers due to expected
advances in science and technology. The added prefixes are ronna (1027),
quetta (1030), ronto (10-27), and,
Greek Alphabet Listing Added To The 'Reference' Section
A listing of the letters of the Greek alphabet has been added to the 'Reference' section. Many
Greek letters are used in formulas of interest to amateur radio operators. This list should help
in reading and understanding many formulas.
Repeater Etiquette — Identifying Your Transmissions
The FCC Amateur radio rules for proper identification apply to all amateur radio communications, including
on your local FM repeater. This article examines how the FCC rules apply to common FM repeater operation and
when, how, and why you should properly identify your station on the local FM repeater.
The FCC rule for station identification states at 47 CFR 97.117(a):
Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned
call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least every 10 minutes
during a communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of the transmissions from the
station known to those receiving the transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified communications
or signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station.
The above few words provide a wealth of information for the amateur radio operator regarding
the proper method of identifying their station while on the air.
First, the rule states that an operator must transmit the station callsign "for the purpose of
clearly making the source of the transmissions from the station known …". In other words,
transmitting a station callsign is how an amateur radio operator identifies the source of their
transmissions. Any time an amateur radio operator transmits their station callsign and then un-keys
their transmitter, it is reasonable to assume they are identifying the source of their transmissions.
Second, each operator is required to identify "at the end of each communication". This may
raise several questions. What is a communication? How does it differ from a transmission or a signal
emission? Is there a reason for using one term rather than another?
Third, an operator must identify their station, should the communication last longer than 10
minutes, not only at the end of the communication, but, "at least
every 10 minutes during a communication". Notice, it is permissible to identify more often than 10
minutes, but, you must identify no longer than 10 minutes from your previous identification.
Finally, "No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals …". This means you
must not transmit any communication or any signal without identifying your station.
Let's apply this information to situations commonly experienced on repeaters. Suppose you want to
see if you can bring up the repeater with your hand-held radio. You press the push-to-talk (PTT) switch
momentarily then let go. The repeater comes up, identifies itself, then goes down. You have successfully
"kerchunked" the repeater. Not only is this annoying to those listening to the repeater, it violates the
FCC's identification rules.
As soon as you press the PTT switch, your radio emits a signal. The station identification rule requires
that you must not perform a communication or emit a signal without
providing proper identification.
Testing your rig to see if you are capable of reaching a particular repeater seems like a reasonable thing to do.
How can you do it properly? The FCC rules allow you to make a brief one-way transmission for making adjustments
to your station equipment (47 CFR 97.111(b)(1)). Press your PTT and say your callsign followed by
the word "testing". You have keyed your transmitter, identified the source of your transmission, and, told everyone
listening that you are just testing your station. You have still "kerchunked" the repeater, however, you have
done it politely and within the FCC rules.
Perhaps you want to contact a particular station. The proper method is to give the callsign of the station you
are calling, say "this is", and give your callsign. This is a permissible one-way transmission per
47 CFR 97.111(b)(2). If the station called doesn't respond after a short wait, make the same call
again. If the called station responds, continue on with what is now a two-way communication. Identify your station
at least every ten minutes and at the end of the communication by saying your callsign.
What if the called station doesn't answer? You will have to decide if you want to give another call or two. You
will need to make a judgement whether the called station is likely to answer your additional calls. There is no
specific rule governing how many calls you must make. In this case, your knowledge of the person you are calling
and your guess as to why they didn't answer must be weighed against the likelihood you are preventing others from
using the repeater.
Once you have decided not to make another call, you may make a final transmission. Although a final transmission
is not required, when a station I call doesn't answer, I make a final transmission saying "nothing heard", saying
my callsign, then saying "clear". This tells anyone listening that you are finished calling your station, are done
using the repeater, and they can go ahead and use the repeater without interfering with your call.
Repeaters often are used by a group of operators communicating with each other. The group may be an informal
one or may be a formal net. Each of these may present several difficulties in properly identifying your
communications. The rules require you to say your callsign to identify your station at the end of your communication.
In a group communication, it is sometimes difficult to know when you are done communicating. You may make a transmission
and return to net control without identifying intending to make a follow-up final transmission. The net control
station may make a comment to you, then, call another station preventing you from making your identification.
In an informal roundtable conversation, comments are being exchanged and there are, usually, plenty of opportunities
to identify your transmission. All of a sudden, the conversation intensifies between just two or three stations
and no one leaves a space for you to jump in and identify! You are excluded from the conversation for an extended period.
The best solution in a group communication is for everyone involved in the conversation to anticipate the potential
problem of inadvertently excluding a station. Identify your station at the end of each transmission if your experience
tells you that the net control station is prone to moving on without allowing you to identify. Net control stations
should recognize that a station hasn't identified and give them the opportunity to do so before calling on the next
station. Everyone in a group conversation should frequently pause for a short moment before keying their transmitter
to allow time for other stations to leave the group, identify, or to allow other stations to join in the conversation.
The FCC rules tell you when and in what circumstances you must identify, and, they tell you how to properly identify.
Meeting the identification requirements is a necessary condition for using a repeater, however, it is not always
sufficient. When you use a repeater, all parties should recognize that most repeaters are intended to be shared by
many operators with varied needs and desires. Each repeater user should not only follow the rules, but, they should
also do their best to make it easy for other users of the repeater to properly identify their transmissions and to
enjoy the use of the repeater.
Author: Steve Judd, WB8YLO
Posted: September 4, 2023
ARISS Link Added To The 'Links' Menu
A new link pointing to the 'Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS)' web site
has been added to the 'Links' menu. The ARISS web site is primarily concerned with contacts
between the ISS and schools and organizations concerned with the education of children worldwide.
ARISS is especially interested in providing information, opportunities, and resources emphasizing
and encouraging interest in STEM education for children,
Using The WB8YLO Location Tool
Use an on-line map to find your decimal latitude and longitude and convert them
to degrees, minutes, seconds, and, to a Maidenhead grid location.
The WB8YLO Location Tool takes your location, in decimal latitude/longitude format and converts
that location to degree, minute, second notation and constructs a Maidenhead Grid for that location.
The tool is quite easy to use. You just enter the decimal latitude and decimal longitude into the
appropriate entry boxes then click the 'Get Grid' button. The results are displayed immediately below the
Most people won't know their decimal latitude and longitude off the top of their heads. Finding your
decimal latitude and longitude is quite easy. There are several easy-to-use on-line maps available
to find your location information in the proper format. When trying this for the first time, open a new
browser tab and select the location tool then open a third tab with the map you wish to use. This
will make it easy to switch between these instructions, the tool, and the map.
The general procedure is to bring up the map, find the location you are interested in, zoom in to that
spot, and click on the spot (usually a right-click) to display the latitude and longitude. The usual
format will be 'latitude, longitude'. Once you see the coordinates, copy them to the appropriate input
boxes on the WB8YLO location tool. Press the 'Get Grid' button and the coordinates you entered will
be converted and displayed as degree, minute, second and as an eight character Maidenhead grid.
Let's use OpenStreetMap as a specific example. The map
comes up centered on the United States. Left-click the 'X' on the welcome message to expose the entire
map. Left-click on a point near your location and drag it to the center of the display. Zoom in,
keeping your location near the center of the screen, until you have a good view of the exact place
you want to use for your location. Place the tip of the middle finger of the pointer icon at that
place and right-click. Select 'Show Address' from the displayed list. A box will show up on the left
of the screen containing the latitude and longitude separated by a comma of the place you clicked
on in decimal format. Copy these to the location tool, press the 'Get Grid' button, and, see the
results immediately below the input boxes.
Other on-line maps you can use are Google Maps.
Bing Maps, and the
U. S. government's EarthExplorer web site. They all
differ in the exact details as to how they work, but, all will provide the desired coordinates.
Note that each map website uses slightly different procedures and provides slightly different
information. What actions are needed to produce the desired results may differ depending on
which map web site you are using and whether you are using a desktop, laptop, tablet, or phone.